Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Martini

Martini (cocktail)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the vodka-based cocktail, see Vodka martini.The Martini is a cocktail made with gin and vermouth,and garnished with an olive or a lemon twist.Over the years,the Martini has become one of the best-known mixed alcoholic beverages. H. L. Mencken called the Martini "the only American invention as perfect as the sonnet"[1] and E. B.White called it "the elixir of quietude".

he martini is one of the most widely known cocktails
type –cocktail
primary alcohol by volume –Gin
standard garnish-Olive or lemon twist
standard drink ware-cocktail glass
Commonly used ingredients-55ml(11 parts)Gin.15 ml(3 parts)Dry vermouth
Preparation- Straight: Pour all ingredients into mixing glass with ice cubes. Stir well. Strain in chilled martini cocktail glass. Squeeze oil from lemon peel onto the drink, or garnish with olive. (On the rocks: Pour all ingredients over ice cubes in old-fashioned glass, garnish as above and serve

Preparation
A The traditional method of preparation is to pour gin and dry vermouth into a mixing glass with ice cubes, stir, strain into chilled cocktail glass, and garnish with a green olive or a twist of lemon peel.The ratio of gin to vermouth has been steadily increasing since the cocktail was created. A ratio of 1:1 was common at the turn of the 20th century, and 3:1 or 4:1 martinis were typical during the 1930s and 1940s. During the latter part of the 20th century, 6:1, 8:1, 12:1, or even 50:1 or 100:1 Martinis became considered the norm.And there have always been those who advocated the elimination of vermouth altogether: Noël Coward suggested that the ideal Martini should be made by "filling a glass with gin then waving it in the general direction of Italy(a major producer of vermouth). Luis Buñuel used the dry martini as part of his creative process, regularly using it to sustain "a reverie in a bar". He offers his own recipe, involving Angostura bitters, in his memoir.
There are a number of variations on the traditional Martini. The fictional spy James Bond sometimes asked for his vodka martinis to be "shaken, not stirred," following Harry Craddock's Savoy Cocktail Book (1930), which prescribes shaking for all its martini recipes. The proper name for a shaken Martini is a Bradford.
However, Somerset Maugham is often quoted as saying that "a martini should always be stirred, not shaken,so that the molecules lie sensuously on top of one another". A martini may also be served on the rocks, that is, with the ingredients poured over ice cubes and served in an Old-Fashioned glass. A dirty martini contains a splash of olive brine or olive juice and is typically garnished with an olive.[A "perfect" martini uses equal amounts of sweet and dry vermouth.
Origins and mixology
The exact origin of the Martini is unclear. Numerous cocktails with names and ingredients similar to the modern-day Martini were first seen in bartending guides of the late 19th century.[10] For example, in the 1888 Bartender's Manual there was a recipe for a drink that consisted of half a wine glass of Old Tom Gin and a half a wine glass of vermouth. In 1863, an Italian vermouth maker started marketing their product under the brand name of Martini. This product is still available today, although it is now better known as Martini & Rossi.Another popular theory suggests it evolved from a cocktail called the Martinez served at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco sometime in the early 1860s, which people frequented before taking an evening ferry to the nearby town of Martinez. Alternatively, the people of Martinez say the drink was first created by a bartender in their town or maybe the drink was named after the town. Another theory links the first dry martini to the name of a bartender who concocted the drink at the Knickerbocker Hotel in New York City in 1911 or 1912.
During Prohibition the relative ease of illegal gin manufacture led to the martini's rise as the predominant cocktail of the mid 20th century in the United States. With the repeal of Prohibition, and the ready availability of quality gin,the drink became progressively dryer. In the 1970s and 80s, the martini came to be seen as old-fashioned and was replaced by more intricate cocktails and wine spritzers, but the mid-1990s saw a resurgence in the drink and an explosion of new versions.Some newer drinks include the word "Martini" or the suffix "-tini"in the name (e.g., appletini, peach martini, chocolate martini, espresso martini). These are named after the Martini cocktail glass they use and generally contain vodka like the kangaroo cocktail, but share little else with the drink
Variations on the proportions
·        A "dry martini" uses less dry vermouth than normal, perhaps a dash or lace of the glass. Similarly, a "wet martini" refers to a martini that uses a greater amount of Vermouth.
·        A "perfect Martini" is technically one made with a mixture of equal parts dry and sweet vermouth, although in many bars the term is misused as a qualitative one. Another name for the perfect martini is the "50-50".
Variations on the gin or vermouth
·        Vesper is a variation also favoured by James Bond, which is made with three measures of gin (Gordon's was Bond's preference), one measure of vodka (grain vodka is preferred), and half a measure of Kina Lillet aperitif, shaken until ice-cold, and with a large, thin slice of lemon peel for garnish.
·        Vodka Martini (aka. Kangaroo) substitutes vodka for gin, and often uses lemon rind as the garnish. This is the most common variation. It was made famous by the James Bond movies as James Bond's favourite beverage. He is known for requesting it "shaken, not stirred.
Variations on the garnish
 Dirty Martini has some of the brine (at least a teaspoon) from the olive jar added
  Gibson is a standard dry martini garnished with cocktail onions instead of olives.
Variations on serving
A martini on the rocks is served on ice, in a rocks glass, instead of being strained into a cocktail glass.
Total variations
Sometimes the term "martini" is used to refer to other mostly-hard-liquor cocktails such as Manhattan (cocktail)Cosmopolitan (cocktail), and ad hoc or local concoctions whose only commonality with the drink is the cocktail glass in which they are served. Chefs with a more whimsical bent are even producing dessert "martinis" which are not a drink at all, but are merely served in martini glasses.


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