he martini is one of the most widely
primary alcohol by volume –Gin
standard garnish-Olive or lemon
standard drink ware-cocktail glass
Commonly used ingredients-55ml(11
parts)Gin.15 ml(3 parts)Dry vermouth
Preparation- Straight: Pour all
ingredients into mixing glass with ice cubes. Stir well. Strain in chilled
martini cocktail glass. Squeeze oil from lemon peel onto the drink, or garnish
with olive. (On the rocks: Pour all ingredients over ice cubes in old-fashioned
glass, garnish as above and serve
A The traditional method of
preparation is to pour gin and dry vermouth into a mixing glass with ice
cubes, stir, strain into
glass, and garnish with a green olive or a
twist of lemon peel.The
ratio of gin to vermouth has been steadily increasing since the cocktail
was created. A ratio of 1:1 was common at the turn of the 20th century,
and 3:1 or 4:1 martinis were typical during the 1930s and 1940s.
During the latter part of the 20th century, 6:1, 8:1, 12:1, or
even 50:1 or 100:1 Martinis became considered the norm.And
there have always been those who advocated the elimination of vermouth
Coward suggested that the ideal Martini should be made by
"filling a glass with gin then waving it in the general
direction of Italy(a major producer of
Buñuel used the dry martini as part of his
creative process, regularly using it to sustain "a reverie in a
offers his own recipe, involving Angostura bitters, in his memoir.
There are a number of variations on the
traditional Martini. The fictional spy James Bond sometimes
asked for his vodka
martinis to be "shaken,
not stirred," following Harry Craddock's Savoy
Cocktail Book (1930), which prescribes shaking for all its
martini recipes. The proper
name for a shaken Martini is a Bradford.
However, Somerset Maugham is
often quoted as saying that "a martini should always be stirred, not
shaken,so that the molecules lie sensuously on
top of one another". A
martini may also be served on the rocks, that is, with the ingredients poured over ice
cubes and served in an Old-Fashioned
dirty martini contains a splash of olive brine or olive
juice and is typically garnished with an olive.[A
"perfect" martini uses equal amounts of sweet and dry
Origins and mixology
The exact origin of the Martini is unclear.
Numerous cocktails with names and ingredients similar to the modern-day Martini were first seen in
bartending guides of the late 19th century. For
example, in the 1888 Bartender's Manual there was a recipe
for a drink that consisted of half a wine glass of OldTom Ginand a half a wine glass of vermouth. In 1863,
an Italian vermouth maker started marketing their product under the brand name of Martini. This product
is still available today, although it is now better known as Martini &
Rossi.Another popular theory suggests it evolved
from a cocktail called the Martinez served at the Occidental Hotel in San Francisco sometime in the early
1860s, which people frequented before taking an evening ferry to the nearby town of Martinez.
Alternatively, the people of Martinez say the drink was first created by a
bartender in their town or
maybe the drink was named after the town. Another theory links the first dry
martini to the name of a bartender who concocted the drink at
the Knickerbocker Hotel in New York City in
1911 or 1912.
During Prohibition the relative ease of illegal gin
manufacture led to the martini's rise as the predominant cocktail of the mid 20th century in the United States.
With the repeal of Prohibition, and the ready availability of quality gin,the drink became progressively dryer.
In the 1970s and 80s, the martini came to be seen as old-fashioned and was replaced by more intricate cocktails
spritzers, but the mid-1990s saw a resurgence in the drink and an explosion of new versions.Some newer drinks include the word
"Martini" or the suffix "-tini"in the name (e.g., appletini, peach
martini, chocolate martini, espresso martini). These
are named after the Martini cocktail glass they
use and generally contain vodka like the kangaroo cocktail,
but share little else with the drink
Variations on the proportions
·A "dry martini"
uses less dry vermouth than normal, perhaps a dash or lace of the glass.
Similarly, a "wet martini" refers to a martini that uses a greater
amount of Vermouth.
Martini" is technically one made with a mixture of equal parts dry and
sweet vermouth, although in many bars the term is misused as a qualitative one.
Another name for the perfect martini is the "50-50".
Variations on the gin or vermouth
·A Vesper is a
variation also favoured by James Bond, which is made with three measures of gin
(Gordon's was Bond's preference), one measure of vodka (grain vodka is preferred),
and half a measure of Kina Lillet aperitif, shaken until ice-cold, and with a
large, thin slice of lemon peel for garnish.
·A Vodka Martini (aka.
Kangaroo) substitutes vodka for gin, and often uses lemon rind as the
garnish. This is the most common variation. It was made famous by the James Bond movies
as James Bond's favourite beverage. He is known for requesting it "shaken,
martini on the rocks is served on ice, in a rocks glass, instead of being
strained into a cocktail glass.
the term "martini" is used to refer to other mostly-hard-liquor
cocktails such as Manhattan
(cocktail), Cosmopolitan (cocktail), and ad hoc or
local concoctions whose only commonality with the drink is the cocktail glass
in which they are served. Chefs with a more whimsical bent are even producing
dessert "martinis" which are not a drink at all, but are merely
served in martini